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Human infectious disease outbreaks across the world are spanning since multiple decades. They are a major public health concern globally and kill more people worldwide than any other cause, with more effect on developing countries. Increased development, global homogeneity resulting from increased travel, trade, social and environmental changes resulting from globalisation are increasing the risk of Infectious Diseases. The term infectious diseases means illnesses caused by germs (such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi) that enter the body, multiply, and can cause an infection. Some infectious diseases are contagious while others are not.
Infectious diseases can be spread by germs carried in air, water, food, or soil. They can also be spread by vectors, Bacteria, viruses or by animals.
Immunology of infections means the battle between pathogens and the host immune defences. Immunology is the branch of science concerned with the various aspects related to immune system, innate and acquired immunity. Immunology also deals with laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with specific antibodies.
Treatment of viral infections such as HIV involves patient care and moral support including antiretroviral therapy. Bacterial infections can be treated by administering antibiotics to the patients. Yeast infections can be primarily treated by sterilisation methods. Parasitic infections can be treated by antiparasitic drugs. Diseases such as cancer can be treated by chemotherapy. Recent techniques have proved that there is no disease that cannot be treated.
Lyme disease is caused by bacteria known as Borrelia burgdorferi. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. Typical symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If it is left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. This disease is treated based on symptoms, physical findings (e.g., rash), and the possibility of exposure to infected ticks. Laboratory testing is helpful if used correctly and performed with validated methods. Most cases of Lyme disease can be treated successfully with a few weeks of antibiotics. The measures to prevent Lyme disease include using applying pesticides, insect repellent, removing ticks promptly and reducing tick habitat.
Fifth disease is a mild rash infection caused by parvovirus B19. This disease is also known as erythema infectiosum. It is more common in children than adults. A person usually gets sick with fifth disease within four to 14 days after getting infected with parvovirus B19. The major symptoms of fifth disease are usually mild and may include fever, running nose, and headache. This disease is contagious because the rash is due to an immune system reaction that happens after the infection has passed. Anyone with fifth disease is most contagious before the rash appears. Children usually don't spread the infection once they have the rash. This disease is caused by a virus, so it can't be treated with antibiotics. In most cases, it is a mild illness that clears up on its own and no medicine is needed.
Autoimmune disease affects 50 million people all around the world. It is one of the top ten causes of death in women under the age of 65, is the second highest cause of chronic illness, and is the top cause of morbidity in women in the United States. These diseases are an effect of a dysfunction of the immune system. The immune system protects a person from infection and disease. At times, the immune system produces autoantibodies that attack healthy cells, tissues, and organs. This can lead to autoimmune disease. It can affect any part of the body. Some of the well-known auto immune disorders are: type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis, and Celiac disease while others are rare and difficult to diagnose. There are autoimmune diseases which are life-threatening, and most of them weaken the Human Immune System and require a lifetime of treatment. There are treatments available to reduce the symptoms and effects from many autoimmune diseases, but cures are yet to be discovered. Since most autoimmune diseases are rare, patients spend years seeking a proper diagnosis.
H5N1 infection in humans can cause severe disease and has a high mortality rate. It is the most common form of bird flu Influenza that is distributed through the world. It has caused symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in many vertebrate species, including a large variety of birds such as ducks, geese, terns, chickens, quail, turkeys, pheasants, starlings, and budgerigars, as well as in gibbons, baboons, chimpanzees and humans. In many cases, bird flu in humans grows into a serious disease that should be treated on time in the hospital and may require intensive care. People who work with poultry farming are suggested to follow biosecurity and infection control practices. They include the use of suitable personal protective equipment and careful attention to hygiene. The antiviral medicine oseltamivir can decrease the severity of illness and prevent death. It should be used in all cases.
These infection spread was by Aedas mosquito. These infections cause birth absconds in babies by tainted pregnant ladies, side effects are gentle fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint agony, disquietude or migraine. These keep going for 2-7 days this contamination was affirmed by research facility tests on blood or other body liquids, for example, pee, spit or semen. Ebola infection sickness (EVD), is normally called as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or Ebola, signs and manifestations ordinarily begin between two days and three weeks subsequent to getting the infection with a fever, sore throat, strong torment and migraine at that point, spewing, the runs and rash typically take after, alongside diminished capacity of the liver and kidneys.
The symptoms of an infection depend on the organism responsible and the site of the infection. Viruses target specific cells, such as those in the upper respiratory tract or genitals. For example, the rabies virus, targets the nervous system. Some viruses target skin cells, causing warts. Others target a wider range of cells, leading to various symptoms. A flu virus can cause a running nose, allergic reactions, muscle aches, and an upset stomach. The cause of an infection is said to be any type of organism that has invaded the body. A particular virus, for example, will be the cause of a viral infection. There can be numerous causes for an infection.
The feasibility of disease control is hampered potentially by vast number of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, the diversity of geographic sources, the potential for rapid global dissemination from these sources, and numerous ecologic and social factors influencing emergence. A disease is an emerging disease only when it is completely a new infection or it has recently increased in impact and severity and affected newer locations across the globe. Re-Emerging diseases are the ones who were known as major health problems at one time, but had declined and now are again becoming health problems for the people.
Zika is a single-stranded RNA flavivirus, a member of the Flaviviridae family. The virus is genetically linked to some others responsible for encephalitis in humans, including chikungunya, dengue, West Nile, and the yellow fever virus. It is one of the arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It causes severe haemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans. As the virus spreads through the body, it damages the immune system and organs. Eventually, it causes levels of blood-clotting cells to drop. This leads to severe, uncontrollable bleeding.
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in both developing and developed countries reminded us the great threat of emerging infectious diseases. Ebola viruses are highly communicable once early symptoms develop. The infected patients shed infectious viruses in all body secretions or fluids. If any individual comes in direct contact with any of these secretions it may cause virus transmission to them. The infection spreads by direct contact with blood and secretions, or the ones that remain on clothing, and by any equipments used to treat patients. There’s no cure for Ebola till date. Drugs like ZMapp and TKM-Ebola are being used for treatment. Specialists prescribe medicines such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) to reduce fever and pain. Treatment includes an experimental serum that destroys the infected cells.
Children are more susceptible to environmental risks than adults because of a number of reasons. Children are constantly growing and so and they eat more food, drink more water, and breathe more air as compared to adults. They have increased vulnerability to illness. These contagious diseases are mostly caused by microscopic organisms, infections and parasites. A widespread variety of immunologic illnesses are caused by micro-organisms, infections, pathogens, bacteria and parasites. Paediatric specialists may understand the symptoms, signs, causes, side effects, medicines, and results related with infectious diseases in children.
During a normal day, a person usually breathes nearly 25,000 times. The term respiratory disease refers to many disorders affecting the lungs, such as asthma, COPD, infections like influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis, lung cancer and many other breathing problems. Some lung diseases can lead to respiratory failure out which a few are contagious and rest are not. The features of different respiratory tract infections largely depend on the structures where inflammation is localised and the extent to which function is altered.
Therefore, infection of the nasopharynx, results in a nasal discharge, bronchitis in cough and sputum production, and pneumonia in cough and sputum, but also in increased respiratory rate and chest radiograph changes. Most upper respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses and are self-limiting.
Many pathogens and pathogenic agents are transmitted via blood, causing infection. Infusion of blood or its components into the body, or blood transfusion, imports a much greater amount of infectious agents into blood vessels compared to an accidental needle prick. Infectious agents which are transmitted by blood include hepatitis viruses, syphilitic spirochete, and retroviruses such as adult T cell leukaemia viruses and AIDS viruses.
Sexually Transmitted Disease is a type of infection of the reproductive tract. They are also referred to as sexually transmitted infections, or genital sickness. Endogenous infections and iatrogenic infections are the other types of reproductive tract infections. Endogenous infections are usually caused due to overgrowth of organisms that are normally present in the genital tract. One example of an endogenous infection is bacterial vaginosis. Other genital diseases include syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), human papillomavirus infection (HPV), and Chlamydia/gonorrhea. Viral STDs cannot currently be cured, but treatment can relieve some of their symptoms and reduce the severity of some of their consequences.
Viral hepatitis is a global public health problem affecting millions of people every year, all around the world causing disability and death. Reasonable measures, such as vaccination, safe injections, safe food, and safe blood supply can decrease the rate of transmission of viral hepatitis. Many of these measures not only reduce the transmission of viral hepatitis but also have spill over effects on the prevention of various other contagious diseases. Furthermore, current therapies for hepatitis B and C give health care providers effective tools to combat the disease. New advanced therapies are also being developed for hepatitis B and C, and the future is more promising than ever. Antiretrovirals such as TDF, 3TC, & FTC are effective for treatment of both HIV and HBV infections. The co-infected patients can take fewer drugs to treat these two diseases. Viral hepatitis can also be prevented by taking vaccines on time and maintaining proper hygiene.
In spite of noteworthy advancements in the treatment of infectious diseases, central nervous system (CNS) infections still remain a major challenge. They are often difficult to diagnose, and treatments are insufficient or non-existent. Infections can be categorised as acute or chronic. Infection of the nervous system may comprise of meninges (meningitis) or the brain substance itself (encephalitis), or both of them (meningoencephalitis). Some infections trigger an inflammatory reaction that causes neurological damage independently or coincide with the infection. In some inflammatory conditions, new issues may arise which might be related to the disease. These differences are of fundamental importance, as management and outcomes can be impacted by timely initiation of therapy.
MRSA is presently a pathogen of global health concern. . They are S. aureus strains that are resistant to oxacillin, nafcillin and methicillin. They can also be resistant to all ß-lactam agents. It can cause a variety of problems ranging from skin infections and sepsis to pneumonia and various types of bloodstream infections. The infections occur commonly among people in hospitals and healthcare facilities such as nursing homes, diagnostic centres and dialysis centres, who have less stable immune systems. The current arsenal of antibiotics available for the treatment of MRSA includes a topical agent, a limited number of oral agents.
A severe pandemic could kill millions and costs trillions of dollars Pandemic refers to an infectious disease that spreads globally and causes mortality on a significant scale. A disease is considered epidemic when the number of cases rises above what would normally be expected in a given area. Epidemics have posed a perpetual threat to human health throughout history. In spite of remarkable advances in infectious disease prevention, control and treatment, epidemics still continue to threaten populations as new diseases emerge and some old ones return. While most epidemics involve an infectious cause, changing behavior patterns have led to epidemic levels of some chronic diseases. There have been innumerable outbreaks of serious infectious diseases across the globe. It is expected that a few diseases might cause severe epidemics. They include Ebola, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya, Zika, Marburg, and SARS.
Vaccination has made a huge contribution towards global health. It is a highly effective method of preventing certain infectious diseases. Vaccines are generally very safe, and severe or adverse reactions are uncommon. Vaccines are of many types and they help to develop immunity by imitating an infection. Two major infections, smallpox and rinderpest, have been eradicated with the help of these vaccines but diseases like Viral hepatitis, influenza, and tuberculosis (TB) remain among the leading causes of illness and death thought the world. The diseases for which vaccines are available are Measles, Rubella, Cholera, Meningococcal disease, Poliomyelitis, Varicella and herpes zoster (shingles).
Infectious and parasitic disease control is important in veterinary clinics. The main aim is to prevent the spread of infections and infestations. Veterinary infectious diseases are caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These infections and diseases may be spread or transmitted from human to human, human to animal, and animal to human.
Rheumatic heart disease is a complication of rheumatic fever in which the heart valves are damaged. Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that arises with strep throat. It harms the connective tissues throughout the body, mainly in the heart, joints, brain and skin. The best way to prevent rheumatic fever is to treat strep throat with antibiotics. Treatment of this disease includes antibiotics treatment for strep infection and additional medications to ease the inflammation of the heart and other symptoms. Aspirin is usually given in large doses until the joint inflammation goes away. Once the acute illness has gone away, patients need to take antibiotics, for many years to prevent recurrences. This is a very important treatment because the risk of heart valve damage increases if rheumatic fever recurs.